Curetages, gingival grafts
Periodontology is a branch of dentistry that studies the supporting dental tissues (periodontium) and the diseases that affect them. The periodontium consists of the gingiva (gums), the alveolar bone, the cement and the periodontal ligament that connects a tooth to the alveolar bone. The most common diseases of the dental support apparatus are gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis (also known as periodontal disease). Many factors contribute to the formation of these diseases and the most important are poor oral hygiene and plaque and scale deposits. In addition to this, tooth malposition and genetic factors also cause gingivitis and periodontal disease.
The etiological treatment is the first to be undertaken.
THOROUGH ORAL HYGIENE
This is the prerequisite for any periodontal treatment. No treatment will be effective in the absence of good dental hygiene.
Dental hygiene should be practiced daily (the moment does not matter) and involves the use of interdental brushes, interdental sticks or interdental wire for cleaning the lateral surfaces of the teeth. Then, the teeth are brushed (external and internal faces) using a toothbrush. Preferably a soft toothbrush will be used, with the technique of "roll" (from the gum to the tooth).
Tartar is removed by the dentist or dental hygienist using ultrasonic (scaler) or manual (curette) instruments.
Root surfacing is most often performed under local anesthesia. It is done by quadrants or sextants.
CURATIVE TREATMENT = SURGICAL
When periodontal disease is too advanced, it requires further treatment.
Descaling / open planing (periodontal surgery).
The dentist (or periodontologist) makes a flap to directly access the surface of the root to be treated. In some cases, filling techniques will be proposed. This is to regain bone height, using osteoinductive materials.
Guided tissue regeneration.
Technique seeking to regenerate the tissues of the periodontium.